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Mini Schnauzers
Posted 7/29/2014
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Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency, or PK Deficiency, is the lack of a critical red blood cell enzyme (pyruvate kinase), which regulates the final step in the conversion of glucose to energy. As a result, red blood cells are not able to metabolize the energy required for the cells to function normally, which leads to a change in the cell membranes, a buildup of sodium ions inside the cell, a resulting swelling of the cell (as water molecules follow the buildup of sodium), and an eventual lysing (bursting) of the cell. Furthermore, there is a shortened life span of red blood cells as the abnormal cells are destroyed by the spleen and liver. To make matters worse, PK deficiency, through the changes described above, can shift the normal process by which hemoglobin stores and releases oxygen to body tissues. The end result of these changes produces "hemolytic anemia," which is a reduction in red blood cells and tissue oxygenation due to the rupture of abnormal red blood cells.

PK Deficiency Inheritance
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait, which means that, for a dog to have PK Deficiency, both parents must be either affected dogs themselves or carriers. Affected dogs will have two copies of the bad gene, while carriers will only have one copy and will not clinically show symptoms, although studies have shown that carriers do have a reduction in normal red blood cell enzyme activity.
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Featured Breed -

Dogue de Bordeaux

The Dogue de Bordeaux At a Glance
Recognized By FCI
Country of Origin
Life Expectancy
Height Range
Weight Range
Colors
Trainability
With Children
With Animals
Climate
Indoor/Outdoor
Exercise Reqd
Grooming Reqd
Dogue de Bordeaux Information
(The Dogue de Bordeaux is not recognized officially by AKC but can be registered with their Foundation Stock Service)

Breed Standard
HEAD: In the male, the perimeter of the skull measured the level of its greatest width corresponds to the height at the withers. In females, it may be slightly les. Its volume and shape are the consequences of the very important development of the temporal, supraorbital ridges, zygomatic arches, and the spacing of the branches of the lower jaw. The upper region of the skull is slightly convex from side to side. Frontal nasal depression of the stop is very pronounced, almost at a right angle to the muzzle. The frontal groove deep, diminishing toward the back of the head. The forehead dominates the face, yet is still wider than high.
MUZZLE: Powerful, broad, thick, rather than short, upper line very slightly concave, moderately obvious folds. Its width hardly decreases toward the end of the muzzle. When seen from above it has the shape of a square.
NOSE: Broad, well opened nostrils, well pigmented black or brown according to mask. Turned up nose not permitted.
MOUTH: Jaws are very powerful and broad. Undershot bite. Lower jaw must project 0.2-0.8 in. The incisors and canines must not be visible when the mouth is closed. The teeth are very strong; strong canines; lower canines set wide apart and slightly curved.
EYES: Oval an set wide apart. The space between the two inner angles of the eyelids equals about twice the length of the eye. Frank expression. Hazel to dark brown for a dog with a black mask; lighter color tolerated but not desireable in subjects with a red mask.
EARS: Relatively small, of a slightly darker color than the coat. At its set on, the ear base is slightly raised in front but must fall back, without limpness along the cheeks. The tip is slightly rounded and must not reach much beyond the eye.
NECK: Very strong, muscular, almost cylindrical. Enormous neck with ample skin, loose and supple. Average circumference equals almost that of the head. The dewlap, well defined, starts at the level of the throat and forms folds to the chest.
COAT: Fine hair which is short nd soft to the touch.
COLOR: Reddish brown, the color of mahogany or in the range of the fawn shades. Good pigmentation is desireable. Small white patches on the chest and feet are allowed.
TAIL: Very thick at the base. The tip does not reach below the hock. Carried low, deeply set. Hanging when at rest, generally raised from 90-120 degrees in realtion to the vertical position when the dog is active.
FOREQUARTERS: Strong bone structre, legs very muscular. Elbows neither turned in or out too much. Forearm is straight or slightly inclined inwrd in order to get closer to the medium plane, especially with very broad chests. Pasterns are powerful, slightly sloping, sometimes a little turned. Feet are strong and tight. Nails curved, preferably pigmented. Pads well developed and supple.
BODY: Chest is powerful, well ribbed up, broad, let down deeper than the elbows. Powerful forechest. Sternal ribs rounded. Other ribs well sprung and well let down. The circumference of the chest must be 10-12 inches superior to the height at the withers.
HINDQUARTERS: Thighs are well developed and thick, muscles visible. STifle in parallel plane to the vertical median plane or slightly turned inward or outward. Lower thigh is relatively short, muscular and well let down. Hock is short and sinewy with the angle of the hock relatively open. When viewed from the rear, the parallel hind legs give the impression of power, although the hindquarters are slightly less broad than the forequarters.
SIZE: Between 100-110 lbs at least. Females lighter than dogs. Males 60-68 cms in height at the withers; females 58-66 cms at the withers. Size should be in proportion to the size of the head.
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Dog Question of the Week

Some answers to last week's question:
What is your dog's favorite game to play?
This Week's Question:
Does your dog LIKE going to the vet?
50% fetch, where I throw a ball, then she runs and gets it, and immediately lays down and starts chewing on it!
Roxanne from Atlanta, GA, USA
Tug o war, without a doubt. He will keep trying to put toys in my hand to tug with him.
Roger from Queens, NY, USA
Dog Question of the Week
Does your dog LIKE going to the vet?
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